Staffjoy's Joie de Vivre "Tina" Fam. van Veluw / France
Staffjoy's Joie de Vivre "Tina" Fam. van Veluw / France

Onderstaand ziet u een samenvatting van de gezondheidsinventarisatie welke uitgevoerd is onder de Nederlandse Staffordshire Bull Terrier populatie en welke gereed is gekomen in het najaar van 2003. Uiteraard hebben wij toestemming gekregen  van de afdeling GGW van de Raad van Beheer op Kynolgosich Gebied in Nederland om deze samenvatting te publiceren. Het volledige rapport (in het Nederlands) is te bestellen bij de Raad van Beheer: www.kennelclub.nl . De samenvatting is in het Engels daar deze is samengesteld voor publicatie in een internationaal verschijnend Staffordmagazine.

(Below you see an summary from the health investigation conducted by the Dutch Kennelclub amongst  the Dutch population of Staffordshire Bull Terriers. The Dutch Kennelclub did alowe us to publish this summary) 

Health Investigation Staffordshire Bull Terriers The Netherlands.

 In The Netherlands the popularity of Staffordshire Bull Terrier has decreased tremendously in the past as you can see below in the table showing the entries in at the Dutch Kennelclub in the period 1989/2003.

 Numbers of registrations at the Dutch Kennelclub

 

* 1989                                                   269

* 1990                                                   263

* 1991                                                   251

* 1992                                                   318

* 1993                                                   348

* 1994                                                   357

* 1995                                                   493

* 1996                                                   660

* 1997                                                   636

* 1998                                                   741

* 1999                                                   677

* 2000                                                   663

* 2001                                                   912

* 2002                                                   673

* 2003                                                   851

                                                      (table 1)

The Dutch Staffordshire Bullterrier Club wanted to know if there were any structural problems concerning health or behaviour. Just like any other breed the Staffordshire Bullterrier has deformities or disturbances who are herediatery or are supposed to have a herediatery origin. Essential was the question if there where health- or behaviourproblems in the breed that direct action was desirable of necessary.  The investigation started in 2002,  for the investigations standarised forms where used. A total of 741 were send send of which 283 forms (38,2%) where returned which enabled to draw useful and trustful conclusions!.

 The direct aims from this health investigation. were:

  1. to get a view what the biggest health problems in the Dutch population of Staffordshire Bull terriers are
  2. to give estimations for the frequency that these problems occur
  3. to hand conclusions and recommendations for breeders and the Breedclub

 For the start of the health investigation. the know problems were evaluated and based on this it was concluded that those problems occur mostly before the age of four years, based on this owners of Staffordshire Bullterriers born in 1999 where asked to participate in this health investigation.. The ratio bitch/dog was almost 1:1, this is an important fact because a shortage of males could indicate a sexe related herediatery deformity.

From the 237 Staffordshire Bull Terriers that participated in this health investigation.

237 (85,3%) where purchased from a breeder, 24 (8,6%) where bred self and 17 (6,1%) where bought from a third party. As the health investigation is also conducted in other breeds some results are nice to compare with the results from this health investigation.. The percentage of Staffordshire Bullterriers bought from a third party is related to other breeds a high percentage, apparently the people who originally bought these dogs are not very motivated to raise a puppy or the Staffordshire Bull Terriers doesn’t live up to their expectations (which dould indicate no or not suffiecient information supplied by the breeders) . Only 1% of the investigated agegroup wasn’t alive anymore, this is compared to other breeds a very low percentage.

 HEALTH

 The first question in this part of the investigation was if there ever have been healthproblems with that specific dog. From the 279 owners that answered this question 73 (26,2%) stated that they did have that kind of problem, again this related to other breeds this is a low percentage, these healthproblems did vary from very minor problems to live threating  problems like kidneyfailure or hearthdeformities.

 Healthprobleems pro system

Table 2. shows the frequency waarmee healtproblems occur in the different systems

 

Year

Skin & Hair

numbers (%)

Spinal Column

numbers(%)

Limbs

numbers (%)

Teeth

numbers(%)

Nervous System

numbers (%)

Eyes &

Visual Faculty

numbers (%)

1999

36 (12,9%)

2 (0,7%)

16 (5,7%)

6 (2,2%)

2 (0,7%)

5 (1,8%)

 

  

 

Year

Ears & Hearing

numbers (%)

Blood &

Defence System

numbers (%)

Heart &Vascular Systeml

numbers (%)

Longs &

Bronchial Tubes

numbers (%)

Alimentary Canal

numbers (%)

Kidneys &

Urinary Passages

numbers (%)

1999

2 (0,7%)

0 (0,0)

0 (0,0%)

8 (2,9%)

3 (1,1%)

1 (0,4%)

 

 

 

Year Milk Scorfulous

numbers (%)

Sexual Organs

numbers (%)

Reproduction

numbers (%)

Hormons

numbers (%)

Liver

number (%)

Behaviour

numbers (%)

1999

0 (0,0)

7 (2,5%)

1 (0,4%)

4 (1,4%)

0 (0,0%)

4 (1,4%)

 

                                                                                                                                  (*Table 2)

The diagram shows that in the category Skin and Hair 36 Staffordshire Bullterrierswere affected, this is 12,9% or better said 1 from each 8 Staffordshire Bullterrier. The next important problemarea are limbs which states that 16 Staffordshire Bullterriers were affected (5,7%).

Breed specific health problems

 Just like any other breed the Staffordshire Bullterrier also has a couple of (herediatery) deformities who, right or wrongly, are mentioned in one breath together with the name of the breed. In preparation to the health investigation. those deformities where summed up and where specific asked after in this health investigation. The results of this health investigation. don’t really confirm those preassumations (!!).

 

Year

Hip displasia

numbers (%)

Epilepsy

numbers (%)

Patella

Luxatie

numbers (%)

Cruciate Ligamet/

Hamstring lesion

numbers (%)

Allergy/Atopie

numbers (%)

1999

1 (0,4%)

2 (0,7%)

1 (0,4%)

11 (3,9%)

16 ( 5,7%)

 

 

 

 

Year

Elongated Soft palate

numbers (%)

Vocal cords paralysis

numbers (%)

Inverted Canine

numbers (%)

Overshot

numbers (%)

Undershot

numbers (%)

1999

2 (0,7%)

0 (0,0%)

1 (0,4%)

2 (0,7%)

2 (0,7%)

 

                                                                                                                          (* Table 3)

Table  3 shows that for the Staffordshire Bullterrier Allergy/Atopie is the most common deformity (16 Staffordshire Bullterriers – 5,7%), the second most  common deformity are cruciate ligament/hamstring lesions (11 dogs- 3,9%).

The other deformities from who was supposed that they possibly play a part in the Dutch Staffordshire Bullterrier population, didn’t or just for a very small percentage occur. That doesn’t mean the some of these problems because of the relative simple way transmitting within a few generations came become serious problems.

  The healthview pro sexe  

 Table 4 shows the healthproblems show pro sexe

It’s shows that dogs suffer more healthproblems (a total of 62 times or better said 0,442 times pro dog) then bitches (a total of 25 times or better said 0,251 times pro dog)

 

Healthproblems from dogs compared to bitches

 

System

Dogs

Numbers (%)

Bitches

numbers (%)

Total Numbers

01. Skin & Hair

21 (15,0%)

15 (10.8%)

36

02. Spinal Column

2 (1,4%)

0 (0,0%)

2

03.  Limbs

10 (7,1%)

6 (4,3%)

16

04. Teeth (dentation)

5 (3,6%)

1 (0,7%)

6

05. Nervous System

2 (1,4%)

0 (0,0%)

2

06. Eyes & Visual Faculty

3 (2,1%)

2 (1,4%)

5

07. Ears & Hearing

2 (1,4%)

0 (0,0%)

2

08. Blood & Defence System

0 (0,0%)

0 (0,0%)

0

09. Heart & Vascular System

0 (0,0%)

0 (0,0%)

0

10. Longs & Bronchial Tubes

6 (4,3%)

2 (1,4%)

8

11. Alimentary Canal

1 (0,7%)

2 (1,4%)

3

12. Kidneys & Urinary Passages

1 (0,7%)

0 (0,0%)

1

13. Milk scrofulous

0 (0,0%)

0 (0,0%)

0

14.  Sexual Organs

4 (2,9%)

3 (2,2%)

7

15. Reproduction

0 (0,0%)

1 (0,7%)

1

16. Hormons

2 (1,4%)

2 (1,4%)

4

17. Liver

0 (0,0%)

1 (0,7%)

1

18. Behaviour

3 (2,1%)

1 (0,7%)

4

 

                                                                                                                                                                              (* Table 4)

 

 BEHAVIOUR

To make an first impression of the behaviour of the Stafffordshire Bullterrier the investigators asked by given characterizations, to give an characteric of their Staffordshire Bullterrier. This question was answered by 279 persons. This gives a picture which shows how the average Staffordshire Bullterrier owner experiences the behaviour of his Staffordshire Bullterrier.

Based on this results in the table the average Staffordshire Bullterrier is pictured as an , friendly, gay and affectionate dog. These typicals were given bij 80% of the owners. For more than 60% it was stated that the Staffordshire Bullterrier was also “active”. Compared to other breeds the Staffordshire Bullterrier does have a high score concerning these positive conductfeatures. On the other side we do have the more common not so much appreciated features but it is interesting to see that for a dog who was originally breed to fight (but never used on humans – like some other breed which for instance can be found in guard dog breeds) features like fierce , grumpy and the will to bite were only mentioned in a very few cases.

A part of the dogs in the group investigated were characterised as scared (6,5%) or as nervous (6,5%).

Behaviour in relationship to sexe 

It is assumed that there are differences in behaviour between dogs and bitches. To see how this is in Staffordshire Bullterriers the featurecharateristics from dogs and bitches were compared as you can see in the following table. Allthough it is hard to justify there is an indication that bitches have a higher rating in the feature “fear”, but for all other characteric features the percentages are mostly equal.

For breeding it is important that we look at scared and nervous bitches, because nervousness and fear can be past on to next generations in two ways. This undesirable behaviour can have an herediatery cause and by this as by the mother as by the father can be passed on to the puppies. Besides this the mother passes on her behaviour to the puppies in the litter. A nervous or scared mother, never mind wether her conduct comes from a herediatery source or is caused by environmental facts, will almost always incirminates her puppies with the same conduct. It is from utmost importancy to withdraw these bitches from breeding. It is also better to not put nervous or scared dogs at stud.

Characteristic Features  dogs compared to bitches

 

Characteristic

Feature

Dogs

numbers (%)

Bitches

numbers (%)

Total numbers

1. Quiet

58 (41,4%)

62 (44,6^%)

120

2. Active

82 (58,6%)

70 (50,4%)

152

3. Nervousness

10 (7,1%)

8 (5,8%)

18

4. Fierce

3 (2,1%)

3 (2,1%)

6

5.Grumbly

2 (1,4%)

0 (0,0%)

2

6. Bite tendency

1 (0,7%)

1 (0,7%)

2

7. Scared

5 (3,6%)

13(9,4%)

18

8. Gay

113 (80,7%)

115 (82,7%)

228

9. Affectionate

117  (83,6%)

122 (87,8%)

239

10. Friendly

122 (87,1%)

122 (87,1)

244

11. Lively

86 (64,1%)

87(62,6%)

173

12. Different

5 (3,6%)

4 (2,9%)

9

 

                                                                                                                                                                               (*Table5)

 Obedience

Another question in this health investigation was how the owners experience

the obedience of their dog.  To specify this they could choose from five offered characteristics( from very good to very bad). Allmost every Staffordshire Bull Terrier owners  in the group investigated did inidicate that their dog is good to very good obedient. Only a small percentage (8,0%) was stated to be moderate to very bad obedient

 

Year

Very good

Numbers (%)

Good

Numbers (%)

Moderate

Numbers (%)

Bad

Numbers (%)

Very Bad

Numbers (%)

Total numbers

Number no answer

1999

106 (38,4%)

147 (53,3%)

21 (7,6%)

2 (0,7%)

0 (0,0%)

276

7

 

                                                                                                                                                                                (*Table6)

 

BREEDING

In this chapter the investigators have tried to “see” what the expectations for the future are based on the breedingbehavouir by the investigated group. By duing this they assumed that the breeding behaviour form the dogs in the period investigated will be representative for the Staffordshire Bullterrers breeding at this moment.

 Numbers of breeding animals and their contribution

 

**DOGS

 

Year

with offspring

numbers (%)

without offspring

numbers (%)

Total

1999

11 (7,9%)

129 (92,1%)

140

 

 

**BITCHES

 

Year

with offspring

numbers (%)

without offspring

numbers (%)

Total

1999

28 (20,4%)

109 ( 79,6%)

137

 

                                                                                                                                                                      (* Table7)        

Table 7 shows that only a small percentage of the animals did get offspring.

 Much more important then percentages are numbers. It is desirable that the inbreedingcoefficient is kept low to decrease the herediatery variety or is kept at the same level. What isn’t shown by the figures is the family relationship between the used breedinganimals . The deviation from born litters split over over dogs and bitches only give a smal view to the level in which breeders tend to inbreeding. The popularity of often used studdogs doesn’t stop by the mating. It seems acceptable that descendants from the most-popular studdogs take a larger part in the breeding from the following generations then the descendants from not so popular studdogs. This causes the effect of excessive use of studdogs in following generations. A limited number of studdogs contribute at first directly and later on indirectly by their descendants an unreasonable contribution to the genetic material in future generations.

 The Staffordshire Bull Terriers comes forward out the chapter “Health” with the best results from the investigated breeds so far. This was reason for the investigators reason to look for an answer for this in comparison to those other investigated breeds. It showed that in the Staffordshire Bull Terrierpopulation a greater number of the available studdogs are used (circa 15 %) and that more bitches (28%) where used for breeding compared to other breeds (3 to 8% from the dogs en 10 to 20% from the bitches). The investigators think that the fact that the employment of more animals has contributed greatly to the preservation of the health quality of the breed.

 Fertility

From the studdogs 17 matings were reported which all resulted in the birth of a litter. Artificial insemination wasn’t used. From the 15 litters the studdogs owners reported none was done by a ceasarian.

 By the breedingbitches 35 matings where reported, of which 35 resulted in the birth of a litter. Only once artificial insemination was used. From the 32 litters reported by the breedingbitch owners 5 times a ceasarian was used.  It’s interesting to see that the owners of the studdogs give a more positive impression on numbers of born, deceased and weaned puppies than given by the breeding bitch owners. 

 The quality of the breedinganimals

 If spoken on the quality of the breeding animals in relation to this health investigation we mean quality in terms of health. Health (or the lack of health) is largely determined by heredatiary. Shortcomings in breedingstock will in many cases appear again in descendants or even in later generations.

 Summary made by Bianca Janssen "Staffjoy's"

Staffjoy's | Staffordshire Bull Terriers | h.janssen40@upcmail.nl